Battle of San Jacinto
Battle of San Jacinto
On April 21, 1836, Texan soldiers led a swift attack on an unsuspecting Mexican force at the Battle of San Jacinto.
The Texans and Mexicans had been at odds since the early 1830s. Up to that time, Mexico had allowed Americans to form a colony in Texas, but it quickly grew to nearly 30,000 people.
Mexican leaders grew concerned about the high number of Americans living in their territory and in 1830, halted their immigration. Relations between the settlers and the government quickly deteriorated. In 1834, a Mexican politician and soldier, General Antonio López de Santa Anna, took over the Mexican government and established himself as a dictator. A year later, Texas declared its independence from Mexico.
After a few clashes between Texans and Mexican soldiers, Texas leaders organized a temporary government on November 3, 1835. Texas troops under Colonel Benjamin Milam captured San Antonio on December 11, 1835. Enraged, Santa Anna sent a large army to San Antonio to put down the uprising.
Texan forces withdrew to the walls of the Alamo. From February 23 to March 6, 1836, Santa Anna’s forces attacked the fort until it finally fell. Many famous men died while defending the Alamo, including Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett, and William B. Travis.
On March 27th, Santa Anna ordered 330 Texan rebels executed after they surrendered at Goliad. Rather than crush the independence movement, these actions galvanized Texan resolve. Word of Santa Anna’s cruel, merciless treatment of the Texans quickly spread, and the ranks of the Texas Army swelled. As the Mexican Army continued its march into Texas, General Sam Houston was training about 900 men to stop them.
The two forces met on April 20 along the San Jacinto River near present-day Houston. On that day, Santa Anna tried unsuccessfully to penetrate the enemy position. He decided to rest his weary men the next day.
But there was no rest for the Texans. Houston ordered an attack instead. The cavalry quietly surrounded the Mexican flanks while ground troops crept within 200 yards of the Mexicans before being detected. The artillery opened fire while the infantry attacked the unprepared enemy with a rallying cry of “Remember the Alamo, remember Goliad!” In less than 20 minutes, the Mexican Army surrendered. Santa Anna tried to escape wearing a private’s uniform but was captured the next day.
Santa Anna signed a peace treaty three weeks later, promising that the Mexican Army would leave Texas. And the Republic of Texas was an independent sovereign country for nearly a decade before it joined America as the 28th state in 1845.
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7 responses to "Battle of San Jacinto "
7 thoughts on “Battle of San Jacinto ”
A lot of good information. Really enjoyed the stamps and history ?
Always enjoy the daily history class.
While postage stamps can be used to build a collection which tells the story of any of our 50 states….I think Texas has the best variety and opportunities. You did such a great job, even tho of course there are so many more “Texas” stamps out there! Well done. -Jews
I never really liked US history in college. But as the years came by, I became interested in American Civil War. I have a collection of hundreds of books on the subject. .However after I retired, I was asked to do substitute teaching part of the time in US History. So for the last 10 years I have done so. US stamps are history! Love America and love their stamps.
Actually, Santa Ana was chasing Houston’s column and stopped for a siesta on a peninsula with one way in and out (a bridge). Houston’s lead column mistakenly circled left and ended up near Santa Ana’s camp. His men discover the Mexican and wanted to attack but Houston said, “What”. They didn’t and Santa Ana was caught with his pants down with the “Yellow Rose of Texas”. He tried to disguise himself as his servant but when discovered and returned to Houston, the Mexican soldiers saluted him. The jig was up and Texas became a nation with a song, “The Yellow Rose”. Try putting that on a stamp.
Much of the Mexican army remained in Texas after the Battle of San Jacinto, but Santa Anna’s 2nd in command was overly cautious. He ended up ordering the remaining troops to retreat, but heavy rains had made the Colorado and Brazos Rivers quagmires. Thus the retreat was a disaster.
Another interesting fact was that before the attack by Houston on Santa Anna, with drum and fife the song “Will You Come to the Bower” was played. This song is a love song and a version was sung by Townes Van Zandt. Townes was an ancestor of Isaac Van Zandt an emissary sent to the US seeking recognition.
1912-14 Washington Franklin Issues, Perf. 12 (Scott #405-23)
It shows the VF is a Washington and the others are dffeaent.