1922-25 $5 America, carmine and blue
US #573 was the only bi-color stamp in the Series of 1922-25.

On December 2, 1863, the Statue of Freedom was placed atop the US Capitol to a 35-gun salute.

1950 3¢ Statue of Freedom on Capitol Dome
US #989 was issued for the 150th anniversary of Washington, DC.

Construction on the US Capitol Building began in 1793 when George Washington laid the cornerstone.  The most famous part of the Capitol is the dome.  The first one, erected in 1824, was made of wood covered with copper.  Within 30 years, the building had expanded so much the dome was small in proportion.  When congressmen saw sketches of a proposed cast-iron dome, they immediately appropriated the money for its construction.

1875 2¢ Newspaper & Periodical Stamp - Statue of Freedom, black
US #PR9 – The Statue of Liberty was featured on several Newspaper & Periodical stamps.

These plans included the monumental Statue of Freedom at the very top of the dome designed by Thomas Crawford.  The statue was originally designed in 1855 as wearing a “Phrygian” cap – a historic symbol of freedom from slavery.  But Jefferson Davis, then secretary of War and in charge of the construction of the statue, strongly objected.  He felt the use of the cap was a commentary against the practice of slavery in the South.

Davis, who later became the president of the Confederacy during the Civil War, supported slavery.  The Phrygian cap arose from the ancient Roman tradition of slaves who won their freedom being allowed to wear the cap.  Davis did not want any symbol of slaves desiring freedom, and ordered the design changed.  He refused to allow work to proceed until it was.

1985 22¢ Flag over Capitol, booklet single
US #2116 – The first commemorative sized definitive booklet stamp

Montgomery Miegs, the supervising engineer of the project, told Crawford, “Mr. Davis says that he does not like the cap of Liberty introduced into the composition because American Liberty is original and not the liberty of the free slave.”  Crawford changed the design to a Roman helmet with eagle feathers – which from a distance has often been confused with a Native American headdress.

2006 $1, $2, $5 Washington 2006 World Philatelic Exhibition, souvenir sheet
US #4075 features a reprint of #573 made from the original dies.

Construction of the dome was incomplete when the Civil War began in 1861.  Although resources on both sides of the conflict were strained, President Abraham Lincoln insisted the work continue as a symbol of American unity.  Nearly 9 million pounds of ironwork was used to build the famous Capitol dome.

2018 Statue of Freedom, set of 3 stamps
US #5295-97 were the first US postage stamps to feature optically variable ink.

After eight years of construction and $1 million (ten times the original amount allocated), the dome was complete.  On December 2, 1863, the Statue of Freedom was placed on top of the dome.  The fanfare included a 35-gun salute – one for every state of the divided Union – and a return salute from 12 forts surrounding Washington, DC.  The pageantry, and the Statue of Freedom, was visible from nearby Virginia – the seat of the Confederate States of America.

2006 $5 Statue of Freedom Reissue FDC
Item #7093624 – 2006 Statue of Freedom First Day Cover

The statue features a female symbolizing freedom draped in classical robes.  Her left hand holds a laurel wreath of victory and the shield of the US with 13 stripes.  She wears a helmet encircled by stars and topped by an eagle’s head and talons.  The statue weighs nearly 15,000 pounds and is 19 feet 6 inches tall.  Removed for renovation in 1993, Freedom was returned less than six months later, in time for the Capitol’s bicentennial celebration.

Click here for photos and more about the Statue of Freedom.

Discover what else happened on This Day in History.

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  1. This is a very interesting article .I would have never known the facts on the statue on the capitol dome had you not told them. In fact I did not know ther

    Keep up the good work. I would never have known had you not printed it.

    1. I agree, Mr. Weaver! I never knew & I’m happy to learn the work involved to remind all Americans of our first president, George Washington & his fight for our LIBERTY! Thank you once again, Mystic Stamp, for your researching our history & the stamps we collect as reminders.

  2. The symbol of Freedom, especially during a time of war, is an important an difficult thing to attain and maintain. It’s amazing how Congress can work under the weight of that dome. The statue on the dome of the TX capitol was removed for repair about the same time but it drew more attention when replaced because it was done using an Army National Guard helicopter which caused a tremendous down draft. It took more that one attempt to get it done and was the hi-lite of the news at the time. Maybe they should have mailed it using some of those Statue of Freedom stamps.

  3. Hurrah for the Statue of Freedom. Jefferson Davis should have been severely taught a lesson that freedom is not for only one group of people, but for all. Thanks for the interesting story.

  4. When the statue was being refurbished it was taken down from the dome and place on the ground. I had the privilege of having my picture taken standing next to the the fenced off area around the statue.

  5. Another good read and interesting story about American history. Who at Mystic does the research and writing of these articles? They are fun to read . Thanks again.

  6. I loved this in 2019 & again 2022. We all enjoy a refresher on history when it comes from Mystic Stamp!

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