Founding of the National Grange
Founding of the National Grange
On December 4, 1867, Oliver Hudson Kelley established the National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry.
Born in Boston in 1826, Kelley decided in his 20s to become a farmer. So in 1849 he took a steamboat to St. Paul, Minnesota. While the area was mostly one of Indian trade at the time, Kelley recognized that it held great agricultural potential.
Kelley soon proved himself to be a talented and pioneering farmer, impressing the locals with his experimentation with new crops, elaborate irrigation system, and use of one of the first mechanical reapers in the state. Soon Kelly was writing popular columns about his ideas on scientific farming for national newspapers. By 1864, he was awarded a position in the federal commissioner of agriculture’s office in Washington, D.C.
After the Civil War ended, President Andrew Johnson gave Kelly a special job. He asked him to travel the Southern states and collect information to help improve their agricultural situation. While most Northerners weren’t well received in the still war-ravaged South, Kelly received a warm welcome from his fellow Masons. They led him on tours of Southern farms, where he was shocked to find they were using such outdated practices.
Kelley soon recognized that there needed to be an organization to help bring Northern and Southern farmers together to cooperate in bettering the conditions in the South. Once his tours were over, Kelley returned to Washington, D.C. and met with a few like-minded friends who agreed that they should found such an organization. So on December 4, 1867, Kelly and seven others met in the office of William Saunders, Superintendent of Propagating Gardens in the Department of Agriculture. There they laid the foundation for this new organization, the National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, often referred to as simply The National Grange.
The first local Grange was officially established the following year in Fredonia, New York. New Granges spread quickly, with membership reaching 200,000 in 1873 and 858,050 in 1875. Around this same time, the Grange created its Declaration of Purposes, which you can read here.
The Grange organized America’s farmers into a powerful political and economic group. This allowed them to lobby for legislation, fight the unfair practices of railroads, and benefit from educational opportunities. In these early years, local farmers were upset by high prices charged by warehouses and railroads that held and transported their grain. The Grange members then lobbied for a series of “Granger Laws.” While these laws didn’t necessarily solve their issues, they did set a precedent for later regulation of private businesses for the public interest. However, the Grange was influential in the passage of the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act, which was the first law to federally regulate railroads to end unfair shipping rates.
The Grange was also influential in the establishment of Rural Free Delivery. Milton Trusler, and Indiana farmer and president of his local Grange began campaigning for the service as early as 1880. The National Grange supported his idea and helped to made Rural Free Delivery a reality in 1891.
Over the years, the Grange also helped establish the Cooperative Extension Service and the Farm Credit System. A number of famous Americans have been members of the Grange, including Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman as well as artist Norman Rockwell. Of his time in the Grange, Roosevelt recalled, “For many years I have been a member of the Grange. I have felt at home in it because it embodies the fine flavor of rural living, which I myself have known and loved. Beyond this, it has been an instrument for expressing in useful activity the highest sentiments and deepest loyalties of Americans.”
While membership has declined in recent years – to about 5,000 local Grange groups in 40 states – The Grange continues to lobby American farmers to this day.
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6 responses to "Founding of the National Grange "
6 thoughts on “Founding of the National Grange ”
An informative and eloquently written article. I had no previous interest in this topic, however, when a subject is presented in the manner that this was, it captures attention. As always, thank you Mystic.
Reading the Grange Declaration of Purpose, I can only pray that all people today would follow their high virtues in the treatment of their fellow men and women. Very interesting article.
Was raised in farm country and knew Granges existed but never heard the story—mahalo!
when I was growing up in the 30’s I was a junior granger. I held all of the offices. It did give some
direction in life. This is whats missing for youth today
Grange is a Latin word for granary or farm. THE GRANGE supported agricultural worker programs and strict immigration laws.This was a non- partisan organisation .CAROLINE ARABELLA HALL (1838- -December 11, 1918) was one of the 8 founders. She played a key-role to give equal rights to women . She was Oliver Kelley`s niece. She met with an automobile accident on October 11, 1918 and never recovered from it. She died on December 11, 1918. She became the first woman to get highest honor THE FIRST CERES OF NATIONAL GRANGE. It is unfortunate that she was NOT recognized as Founder of Grange till 2015. That year she was unanimously voted as FOUNDER of Grange . It is interesting to note that two American Presidents , Franklin D Roosevelt and Harry Truman , were members of The Grange . Thank you MYSTIC for another interesting event in history.
As a Grange member for many years, your article was super, but I would have liked for you to have addressed the grange’s influence in the formation of today’s farming and ranching youth groups: the 4H clubs and FFA clubs in America..