First National Fire Prevention Day Proclamation

US #971 commemorates the 300th anniversary of the first volunteer fire department in America.

On October 9, 1920, President Woodrow Wilson declared issued the first presidential proclamation of Fire Prevention Day.  Fire Prevention Day is held in October to commemorate and remind us of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.

The fire started on October 8, 1871, at around 9:00 pm in or near the barn of the O’Leary family.  Fire officials were never able to figure out the exact cause of the fire.  Some theories include that the family’s cow knocked over a lantern or that a group of men were gambling in the barn and knocked over a lantern.  Others suggest the fire was linked to other fires in the Midwest that same day.

US #971 – Plate Block First Day Cover.

The fire would spread very quickly due to several factors.  There had been a long drought that summer and the flames were strengthened by strong winds from the southwest.  The fire also quickly destroyed the city’s water pumping system, which set the firefighters back in their attempts to put out the fire.  And much of the city’s buildings were made of wood and topped and with tar, plus the sidewalks and roads were made of wood.

US #1908 from the Transportation Series.

At the time of the fire, Chicago’s Fire Department had 185 firefighters and 17 horse-drawn steam engines to protect the city. Unfortunately, they were sent to the wrong location, which allowed the fire to spread in their absence.

The fire moved quickly, through lumberyards, warehouses, and coal yards.  At one point, it developed a fire whirl, a spinning tornado-like phenomenon created from rising overheated air meeting cooler air above.  This lifted flaming debris high into the air, allowing it to blow across the river and spread even farther.

US #2264 pictures a steam-operated pumper.

The worst of the damage was done on October 9. After the city’s waterworks were burned down, there was little the firefighters could do.  However, by this point, the fire began to burn itself out and it began to rain.  The fire would continue into the next day and it would be several days before the building remains would be cool enough to be surveyed.

In all, the fire stretched across an area four miles long and about ¾ of a mile wide, covering over 2,000 acres.  It destroyed over 73 miles of road, 17,500 buildings, and caused $222 million dollars in property damage.  At least 300 people were killed and about 90,000 were left homeless.

Yet, Chicago was quickly rebuilt. In fact, the effort to reshape the city attracted many of the world’s greatest architects. Chicago rose again to become the nation’s second-largest city and its architectural capital.  And within two decades, Chicago would host the 1893 World’s Fair, showing the world just how well they had risen from the ashes of the fire.

US #1908 – Silk Cachet First Day Cover.

The first instance of a Fire Prevention Day came on the 40th anniversary of the fire in 1911.  That year, the Fire Marshalls Association of North America staged the event to remind the public about the importance of fire prevention. In 1919, several fire prevention groups, including the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the Dominion Fire Prevention Association (DFPA) called on the American and Canadian governments to create a Fire Prevention Day.

US #2264 – Silk Cachet First Day Cover.

President Woodrow Wilson answered this call in 1920 when he proclaimed October 9 to be National Fire Prevention Day.  He called on the states to prepare education presentations to inform the public about the importance of fire prevention.  In 1925, the event was expanded to Fire Prevention Week. Each year, the week in which October 9 falls is celebrated as National Fire Prevention Week.

Click here for more about Fire Prevention Week from the NFPA website.

Click here to read Wilson’s 1920 proclamation.

Click here to see what else happened on This Day in History.

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  1. And now you find that Chicago is a brick, mortar and steel city, because or ordinances after the fire. It is a unique and charming big city with a friendly and diverse population. You need to experience the many charming, self contained neighborhoods to appreciate it. Public transportation is very good. Long live Chicago!

  2. The importance of the subject affected always attract more attention.The lost of life and nature was smaller in Chicago but the variety of institutions and importance of a city like Chicago was definitely much bigger, which in turn attracted the capital and skills for reconstruction.
    Any catastrophic event always bring innovation.Chicago was also the origin of the modern code for water and sanitary systems.
    Thinking about changes as result of disaster make me think about all the changes in architecture, including the open spaces we enjoy in modern designs, resulting from the 1918 pandemic.
    Maybe a subject to consider in another one of Mistic’s philately comments?
    I am curious about the changes that we should expect due to Covid-19.
    Waiting for those stamps too!

  3. The Chicago Fire virtually destroyed all properties owned by Horatio Spafford. But his greatest loss was the loss of his four daughters, when the ship they and his wife were on sank in the mid-Atlantic, after colliding with the vessel: Lock-Urn. They vessel they were traveling, was the: Ville d’Harve.
    Following his loss, he (Spafford) when on to write the hym: “It is Well with My Soul”

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