Mexico Gains Independence from Spain

U.S. #1157 – This stamp marks the start of Mexico’s war for independence in 1810, though Spain didn’t recognize it until the war’s end in 1821.

Mexico Gains Independence from Spain

After more than a decade of fighting and over 20,000 casualties, Mexico officially gained its independence from Spain on September 27, 1821.

Mexico had been under Spanish control since 1521 and rarely challenged it until the early 1800s with Napoleon’s occupation of Spain. It was then that Mexican priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla launched a revolt.

On the night of September 15-16, 1810, Hidalgo declared war on the colonial government in what has been named the Grito de Dolores, or Cry of Dolores. By morning, the revolutionary army sought independence and marched to Guanajuato, an important mining center controlled by the Spaniards and creoles (people of pure or mostly Spanish ancestry). The Spaniards and creoles locked themselves in the granary, but were captured on September 28. Most were killed or exiled.

Item #M6044 – A joint issue First Day Cover with the 1960 U.S. and Mexico stamps cancelled by their respective countries.

A month later, on October 30, Hidalgo and his men were met by a Spanish resistance at the Battle of Monte de las Cruces. The rebels couldn’t beat the heavily armed Spanish army in Mexico City, which sent many rebel survivors into hiding while they made a new plan.

In January the following year, the Spanish army defeated the rebels again at the Battle of the Bridge of Calderón. The rebels fled to the U.S.-Mexico border but were captured by the Spanish army. Hidalgo was put on trial and killed.

U.S. #1157 – First Day Cover with both 1960 U.S. and Mexico stamps canceled in the U.S. (Please note, your cover may include one (#1157) or both stamps).

With Hidalgo gone, the rebels needed a new leader, and José María Morelos was chosen. Morelos led the successful campaigns that took the cities of Oaxaca and Acapulco. The Congress of Chilpancingo convened in 1813, and the Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America was signed on November 6. Two years later, Spanish authorities captured, tried, and executed Morelos. Small groups carried on the fighting between 1815 to 1821. The war finally came to an end when Spanish representatives signed the Treaty of Córdoba on September 24, 1821, officially recognizing Mexico’s independence. Three days later, the Mexican army, (known as the Army of the Three Guarantees) entered Mexico City, proclaiming their independence after 11 years of fighting.

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13 responses to "Mexico Gains Independence from Spain"

13 thoughts on “Mexico Gains Independence from Spain”

  1. This vignette is just like all of the ones that Mystic sends–excellent! I wish you were around when I started collecting, but that was in 1940! I hope you can keep it up indefinitely. There is still a lot of history I don’t know and you make it easy.

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  2. I am growing to really like this program. It is becoming my ‘stamp and coffee’ moment to start the day. Thanks. …however, today, while ‘really’ looking at a stamp that I’ve seen before I wondered… What’s the deal on the artwork? How about maybe a sidebar on the story of the art… I don’t mind starting the day with two cups of coffee.

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  3. Sadly the independence from Spain was followed by a series of dictators. There was however, the establishment of the Constitution of 1824. It provided for local and state representation by vote and slavery was forbidden. But Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna t made himself the Napolean of the West taking away that representation in the States and appointing military governors. Texas would eventually revolt, as would Yucatan. But that’s another story for another stamp.

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  4. I went to college ( Mexico City College ) from the Fall of 1956 to June, 1961 when I
    graduated……..I lived with a Mexican family the first year , just off the Paseo de la Reforma
    one of the most beautiful boulevards, I thought and still do, in the world……….I was joined
    by 200 or more ex-GI’s from the Korean War as I was……..I do not recall any bad feelings
    we ever encountered from the Mexican people…and a number of us married Mexican women.. there are millions of people there now and it is not as it was..those many years ago when I attended college there………….

    I have been back few times but will not return again………..to dangerous……………..

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  5. A pity that you do not mention Gen. Agustin de Iturbide who was the one person who could end the war without firing a shot and gain the Independence for Mexico on September 27th, 1821. After making an alliance with Vicente Guerrero in the Abrazo de Acatempan (Scott 632) he went to Cordoba to receive the incoming Viceroy from Spein and negotiated with him the end of the war without the loss of one life, formalizing the Treaty of Cordoba, then he marched into Mexico City in front of the Insurgent Army (Scott 633). Unfortunately the official history as told by the government has tried to forget about the true liberator of Mexico.

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  6. Very happy to read and learn about some universal history chapters….many times forgotten.
    Morelos was a great and brave man along many others!!!

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  7. WOW!! What a great site!!! Every day I check my NASA website to check up on the latest info about what’s happening out there in space. Now I’m going to add this website to my daily dose of information. I’ve been collecting stamps ever since 1952 while I was in college. This will be my way to check up on what’s has happened in the past. Thanks a mil!!!

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