U.S. Adopts Great Seal
U.S. Adopts Great Seal
On June 20, 1782, the United States adopted the Great Seal. It had taken six years, three committees, and the work of 14 men.
The history of the Great Seal dates back to July 4, 1776, the day America declared its independence from Great Britain. That same day, the Continental Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to a special committee to design the country’s Great Seal or national emblem. The emblem was needed to seal, or sign, international treaties and transactions.
These three founding fathers knew little of heraldry design, so they enlisted the help of Pierre Eugene du Smitiere (who later designed the state seals of Delaware and New Jersey). They also each had their own ideas for the seal. Franklin suggested a scene from Exodus, Jefferson proposed an image of the Children of Israel, and Adams wanted to picture the “Judgment of Hercules.” In the end, they went with Smitiere’s more traditional design that included Liberty, Lady Justice, the Eye of Providence, and the motto E Pluribus Unum (Out of Many, One).
Though the committee presented Congress with their design, no further action was taken for three-and-a-half years. Then in March 1780, Congress appointed a second committee that consisted of James Lovell, John Morin Scott, and William Churchill Houston. They too sought help from an expert, Francis Hopkinson. He produced two similar designs for the seal, which included 13 red diagonal red and white stripes, an olive branch, an Indian warrior, and Liberty.
Congress was unhappy with the design, but the committee didn’t take any further action. So two years later, Congress formed a third committee, consisting of John Rutledge, Arthur Middleton, Elias Boudinot, and Arthur Lee. This group also brought in a heraldic expert, William Barton. Barton’s designs included a woman, a warrior, an eagle, a phoenix in flames, a pyramid, and the radiant Eye of Providence.
After Congress turned down Barton’s designs, they enlisted Charles Thomson. They gave him everything submitted by the previous committees, and he would use elements from each of them in the final design. Thomson submitted his design to Congress on June 20, 1782, and it was accepted that same day. The seal was then cut on a brass die and first used on a document that September.
Click here to see the other proposed versions of the seal, plus even more history.
Click here to see what else happened on This Day in History.
8 responses to "U.S. Adopts Great Seal"
8 thoughts on “U.S. Adopts Great Seal”
Six Years and Three Committees, WoW! Imagine how long its gonna take our Government to come up with a decent Health Care Coverage Bill.
This is one of those insomnia nights so even though you ran a short article you had several additional options such as the other proposed versions along with more history. Mission accomplished, good night. P.S. Was there anything during that period of time that Franklin, Jefferson and Adams weren’t involved in?
“Six years, three committees and fourteen men.” Seems like our young country was already on its way to creating bureaucracies.
Some decisions should not be rash or made on impulse. In this case, I’m glad that the “Great Seal” took three tries. Even the final eagle needed a little sprucing up. We seem to have second thoughts on items rush out of those “Hallowed Halls”.
Collectors of postal stationary will know that there is also a 20-cent stamped envelope, U602 – issued June 15, 1982 – that provides a slightly larger image of The Great Seal. It celebrates the bicentennial of its use.
Good info. keep it coming.
They made the right choice, simple and powerful, GOD BLESS AMERICA!
Thank you, Mike. You included the mention of God, in your statement. The Nazi’s also used the eagle in their seals.