U.S. Captures Okinawa 

U.S. #2981c from the WWII 1945: Victory at Last sheet.

On June 21, 1945, U.S. troops captured Okinawa from the Japanese.

By the spring of 1945, the Allies’ successful island-hopping campaign had brought them to the Ryukyu Islands, about 350 miles from Japan. Air bases on the islands, including Okinawa, could be used in the planned attack on the mainland.

U.S. #2981c – Okinawa Silk Cachet First Day Cover.

The landing on Okinawa began on Easter Sunday, April 1, 1945, and was the last and largest amphibious assault of the Pacific Campaign. Expecting immediate resistance, as at Iwo Jima, troops were surprised to find little enemy activity. Hours after troops had swarmed ashore, a vital airstrip was captured without a single shot being fired. For five days U.S. troops waited to engage the enemy.

U.S. #1869 – Nimitz commanded naval forces at Okinawa.

As it turned out, the Japanese had a plan. Instead of meeting the enemies on the shore, the Japanese built strong defenses in caves, pillboxes, and castles. Then on April 6th the Japanese struck – General Ushijima had pulled his forces back to the southern part of the island and was waiting to trap the Marines.

For two days, nearly 700 enemy aircraft, including 350 kamikazes, pounded the beachheads and the offshore forces. From that point on, Okinawa was won in a series of bloody battles. Japanese strongholds had to be conquered one cave or pillbox at a time. The Japanese also forced Okinawa’s citizens to fight. By May, the Allies faced another enemy – the monsoon season.

U.S. #3420 – Stilwell commanded Army troops in the final days of the battle.

In spite of the many hardships, the Allies pushed forward, securing the island on June 21, 1945, though some Japanese defenders held out for another day. The casualty toll was more than 200,000, including many civilians.

America’s sea power, encroaching land force, and formidable air power now posed an immediate threat to the Japanese mainland. Some members of the Japanese government favored surrender, others wanted to fight on. With their bases in line, the Allies proceeded with their plans to force Japan into unconditional surrender.

Because of the large number of casualties experienced during the battle for Okinawa, U.S. military officials decided not to attack Japan, fearing an even greater loss of life. Instead, two atomic bombs would be dropped to force a Japanese surrender and prevent further casualties.

U.S. #1398 from the Prominent Americans Series.

Among the casualties at Okinawa was American journalist Ernest “Ernie” Pyle. He had been reporting on the war from Europe since 1940 and went with the Navy when they invaded Okinawa. On April 18, 1945, Ernie was on Iejima Island, northwest of Okinawa. He was traveling with four other men to observe the front-line action when the jeep was fired upon by Japanese machine guns. Pyle was shot in the temple and died instantly. He was later awarded a Purple Heart, one of the few civilians to receive it. When the Navy Secretary announced Pyle’s death, he said the war correspondent had “helped America understand the heroism and sacrifices of her fighting men.”

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  1. The Japanese military’s forcing civilians to fight gave the Allied forces a taste
    of what would happen in an invasion of Japan’s main islands. It would be a
    very bloody affair with the possibility of 200,000 allies killed and three times
    that number wounded not to mention the great possibility that the Japanese
    losses could top 2-3 million dead. The dropping of the two Atomic Bombs,
    however horrible it was, actually spared millions of lives. The only
    people, who today try to revise the History of WWII, are those that really
    dislike the U.S. as an evil country and everything they did in the past was evil.
    The U.S. requisitioned so many Purple Hearts that they were used in Korea,
    Vietnam and even Desert Storm and Iraqi Freedom.

  2. Well done Mystic. As I’ve aged and read about our American history, I have a much greater appreciation for the heroism and sacrifices made by our soldiers.
    I recently read Killing the Rising Sun: How America Vanquished World War II Japan, by Bill O’Reilly, Martin Dugard. & found it a very good read and account of the war in the pacific and end of WWII.

  3. Most people back then and many today do not understand the mentality of the Samurai Warrior. They did not see the need for the “Bomb”. Once I read “Flyboys” by James Bradley, I was shocked. It is the true story of what happened to George H.W. Bush’s Nave squadron. My hat is off to those who sacrificed their lives cleaning out those islands.

  4. We’re it not for the decision to use the atomic bombs my self and my 8 siblings would undoubtedly not be here today. My father a Marine private was wounded on May 10th and put right back on the front line with the 22 regiment five days later he is the Marine carrying the BAR in the $.32 cent stamp.

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